Chapter 2 Learning: Factors and Processes Book name: Understanding Language teaching Written by: Kumaravadivelu Prepared by: Saeed Mojarradi - Ph.D. student Five major constructs that constitute the input-output chain: Input Intake Intake factors Intake processes Output 2.1. Input Input may be operationally defined as oral and/ or written corpus of the target language (TL) to which L2 learners are exposed through various sources and recognized by them as language input. This definition posits two conditions: - Availability - Accessibility Availability: the first condition is rather obvious: either input has to be made available to learners or they have to seek it themselves. -Interlanguage input: the still-developing language of the learners and of their peers with all its linguistically well-formed as well as deviant utterances. -Simplified input: the grammatically and lexically simplified language that teachers, textbook writers and other component speakers use in and outside the classroom, while addressing language learners. -Non-simplified input: the language of competent speakers without any characteristic features of simplification, that is, the language generally used in the media ( t.v , radio, and newspaper) and also the language used by competent speakers to speak and write to one another.